Linux Command Line Befehle

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Linux Command Line Befehle

System Care

sudo apt-get update Update List of Packages

sudo apt-get upgrade Upgrade OS and packages

Directory Operations

pwd Show current directory

mkdir dir Make directory dir

cd dir Change directory to dir

cd .. Go up a directory

ls List files

ls Options

-a Show all (including hidden)

-R Recursive list

-r Reverse order

-t Sort by last modified

-S Sort by file size

-l Long listing format

-1 One file per line

-m Comma-­sep­arated output

-Q Quoted output

Search Files

grep pattern files Search for pattern in files

grep -i Case insens­itive search

grep -r Recursive search

grep -v Inverted search

grep -o Show matched part of file only

find /dir/ -name name* Find files starting with name in dir

find /dir/ -user name Find files owned by name in dir

find /dir/ -mmin num Find files modifed less than num minutes ago in dir

whereis command Find binary / source / manual for command

locate file Find file (quick search of system index)

File Operations

touch file1 Create file1

cat file1 file2 Concat­enate files and output

less file1 View and paginate file1

file file1 Get type of file1

cp file1 file2 Copy file1 to file2

mv file1 file2 Move file1 to file2

rm file1 Delete file1

head file1 Show first 10 lines of file1

tail file1 Show last 10 lines of file1

tail -F file1 Output last lines of file1 as it changes

File Permis­sions

chmod 775 file Change mode of file to 775

chmod -R 600 folder Recurs­ively chmod folder to 600

chown user:group file Change file owner to user and group to group

File Permission Numbers

First digit is owner permis­sion, second is group and third is everyone.

Calculate permission digits by adding numbers below.

  • 4 read (r)
  • 2 write (w)
  • 1 execute (x)

Nano Shortcuts


Ctrl-R Read file

Ctrl-O Save file

Ctrl-X Close file

Cut and Paste

ALT-A Start marking text

CTRL-K Cut marked text or line

CTRL-U Paste text

Navigate File

ALT-/ End of file

CTRL-A Beginning of line

CTRL-E End of line

CTRL-C Show line number

CTRL-_ Go to line number

Search File


ALT-W Find next

CTRL-\ Search and replace

More nano info at: http:/­/ww­w.n­ano­-ed­ito­r.o­rg/­doc­s.php

Screen Shortcuts

screen Start a screen session.

screen -r Resume a screen session.

screen -list Show your current screen sessions.

CTRL-A Activate commands for screen.

CTRL-A c Create a new instance of terminal.

CTRL-A n Go to the next instance of terminal.

CTRL-A p Go to the previous instance of terminal.

CTRL-A " Show current instances of terminals.

CTRL-A A Rename the current instance.

More screen info at: http:/­/ww­w.g­nu.o­rg­/so­ftw­are­/sc­reen/

Bash Commands

uname -a Show system and kernel

head -n1 /etc/issue Show distri­bution

mount Show mounted filesy­stems

date Show system date

uptime Show uptime

whoami Show your username

man command Show manual for command

Bash Shortcuts

CTRL-c Stop current command

CTRL-z Sleep program

CTRL-a Go to start of line

CTRL-e Go to end of line

CTRL-u Cut from start of line

CTRL-k Cut to end of line

CTRL-r Search history

!! Repeat last command

!abc Run last command starting with abc

!abc:p Print last command starting with abc

!$ Last argument of previous command

ALT-. Last argument of previous command

!* All arguments of previous command

^abc^123 Run previous command, replacing abc with 123

Bash Variables

env Show enviro­nment variables

echo $NAME Output value of $NAME variable

export NAME=value Set $NAME to value

$PATH Executable search path

$HOME Home directory

$SHELL Current shell

Watch a Command

watch -n 5 'ntpq -p' Issue the 'ntpq -p' command every 5 seconds and display output

Process Management

ps Show snapshot of processes

top Show real time processes

kill pid Kill process with id pid

pkill name Kill process with name name

killall name Kill all processes with names beginning name

IO Redire­ction

cmd < file Input of cmd from file

cmd1 <(cmd2) Output of cmd2 as file input to cmd1

cmd > file Standard output (stdout) of cmd to file

cmd > /dev/null Discard stdout of cmd

cmd >> file Append stdout to file

cmd 2> file Error output (stderr) of cmd to file

cmd 1>&2 stdout to same place as stderr

cmd 2>&1 stderr to same place as stdout

cmd &> file Every output of cmd to file

cmd refers to a command.


cmd1 | cmd2 stdout of cmd1 to cmd2

cmd1 |& cmd2 stderr of cmd1 to cmd2

Command Lists

cmd1 ; cmd2 Run cmd1 then cmd2

cmd1 && cmd2 Run cmd2 if cmd1 is successful

cmd1 || cmd2 Run cmd2 if cmd1 is not successful

cmd & Run cmd in a subshell